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READING and USE of ENGLISH
PART FOUR – KEY WORD TRANSFORMATION
 

What To Expect

• You will be given a complete sentence followed by a second, incomplete sentence, which has a gap. You must complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. One word is given to you (the key word). You must use this key and it cannot be changed.

• You need to write between two and five words in the gap. Contractions count as two words (I’ve = I have, We’re = we are, he’s = he has/he is etc.).

• There are six questions in this section.

• The six questions in this part contain two marks each for a completely correct answer, or one mark if the answer is partly correct.
 



The questions look like this:

Example:

It was impossible for Pepito to become accustomed to living in England.

USED

Pepito couldn’t ________________ living in England.


Here they are testing the verb get used to, so they will expect the answer to be;

Answer: Pepito couldn’t get used to living in England.

It’s important to keep the meaning of the second sentence as close as possible to the first. Here’s another example;

Luis asked me to collect him from the airport.

PICK

Luis asked me _____________ from the airport.


This is testing a phrasal verb to pick up;

Answer: Luis asked me to pick him up from the airport.

• Ask yourself what they are testing in the question. Are they testing vocabulary, maybe a phrasal verb? Are they testing grammar? If so, what grammar are they testing? Verb tense? Comparatives and superlatives? Reported speech? Gerunds and infinitives? Active and passive? Modal verbs?

• If the verb tense in the first sentence is continuous, try to keep the second sentence continuous (if possible). If it’s a perfect tense, try to keep the second sentence perfect. Keep the second sentence as similar to the first as possible. Try to use the same words if you can. For example, don’t change ‘John’ to ‘he’, or ‘Maria’ to ‘she’, unless you have to.

• You need to write between two and five words in the space and you must use the word given without changing it. Contractions count as two words (e.g. I’ve = I have).

• Do not leave the answer sheet blank for any question. If you don't know the correct answer, guess (using between two and five words).

• When you have finished, transfer your answers to the separate answer sheet.
 

Read the following questions from part 3 and decide what language point each question is testing. Follow the example.

Example: 
Your employer must sign this contract.
be
This contract ___________________ by your employer.
 
1.We haven’t been to a nice restaurant for weeks.
since
It’s weeks ______________ a nice restaurant.
 
2. Samantha didn’t speak to me in the pub.
avoided
Samantha _________________in the pub.
 
3. Perhaps they phoned while we were shopping.
may
They _________________while we were shopping.
 
4. How long have you been learning to drive?
did
When ________________to drive?
 
5. Pepito doesn’t see his ex-girlfriend anymore.
touch
Pepito has _________________ his ex-girlfriend
 
6. Samantha loves participating in salsa dancing competitions.
part
Samantha loves _______________salsa dancing competitions.
 
7. Scientists say the universe is expanding.
believed
The _____________________ expanding.
 
8. It isn’t necessary for you to pay immediately.
have
You _________________________ pay immediately.
 
9. Could you take me to the airport Friday morning?
mind
Would ____________________to the airport Friday morning?
 
10. The tsunami disaster in Asia was horrifying.
horrified
We ____________________the tsunami disaster in Asia.
 

Check Click for Answers

Now look at the sentences again. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words including the word given. Follow the example.

Example:

Your employer must sign this contract.
be
This contract by your employer.
1.We haven’t been to a nice restaurant for weeks.
since
It’s weeks a nice restaurant.
2. Samantha didn’t speak to me in the pub.
avoided
Samantha in the pub.
3. Perhaps they phoned while we were shopping.
may
They while we were shopping.
4. How long have you been learning to drive?
did
When to drive?
5. Pepito doesn’t see his ex-girlfriend anymore.
touch
Pepito has his ex-girlfriend
6. Samantha loves participating in salsa dancing competitions.
part
Samantha loves salsa dancing competitions.
7. Scientists say the universe is expanding.
believed
The expanding.
8. It isn’t necessary for you to pay immediately.
have
You pay immediately.
9. Could you take me to the airport Friday morning?
mind
Would to the airport Friday morning?
10. The tsunami disaster in Asia was horrifying.
horrified
We the tsunami disaster in Asia.

Check Click for Answers

Do the same with ten more questions. Decide what each question is testing from the following list:

phrasal verbs
collocations (words which go together)
conditional sentences
so/such
comparatives/superlatives

1. A Harley Davidson is much more expensive than a Honda.
far
A Honda ________________________ a Harley Davidson.
 
2. I tolerate my mother-in-law because I don’t want to cause problems.
put
I _____________________ mother-in-law because I don’t want to cause problems.
 
3. Samantha can’t see me tonight because she’s going to Barcelona.
able
If Samantha wasn’t going to Barcelona, she _________________see me tonight.
 
4. It was such a great game I bought it immediately.
so
The ________________________ bought it immediately.
 
5. Building a house without permission is illegal, isn’t it?
law
Building a house without permission _______________ , isn’t it?
 
6. The cake was so good that Craig had to eat all of it.
such
It _________________________ Craig had to eat all of it.
 
7. You’ll have to pay at least 40 Euros to get a good meal.
difficult
You’ll __________________ get a good meal for less than 40 Euros.
 
8. I’ve never seen such a sexy man
the
This is _________________________ I have ever seen.
 
9. Take my advice; don’t go to Argentina at this time of year.
were
If I _______________________go to Argentina at this time of year.
 
10. There aren’t any beers left.
run
We ____________________beers.
 

Check Click for Answers

Now complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.  Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words.

1. A Harley Davidson is much more expensive than a Honda.
far
A Honda a Harley Davidson.
2. I tolerate my mother-in-law because I don’t want to cause problems.
put
I mother-in-law because I don’t want to cause problems.
3. Samantha can’t see me tonight because she’s going to Barcelona.
able
If Samantha wasn’t going to Barcelona, she see me tonight.
4. It was such a great game I bought it immediately.
so
The bought it immediately.
5. Building a house without permission is illegal, isn’t it?
law
Building a house without permission , isn’t it?
6. The cake was so good that Craig had to eat all of it.
such
It Craig had to eat all of it.
7. You’ll have to pay at least 40 Euros to get a good meal.
difficult
You’ll get a good meal for less than 40 Euros.
8. I’ve never seen such a sexy man
the
This is I have ever seen.
9. Take my advice; don't go to Argentina at this time of year.
were
If I go to Argentina at this time of year.
10. There aren't any beers left.
run
We beers.

Check Click for Answers

Here are some more sentences for you to practice without the given word!

1) The last time I saw him was three years ago.
I for three years.
2) They have been married for 25 years.
They 25 years ago.
3) Pepito did the shopping despite the heavy rain.
Pepito did the shopping even heavily.
4) Why don't you take the 10.15 train to London?.
How 10.15 train to London?.
5) Although, she was wealthy she lived in poverty.
Despite in poverty.
6) The carpenter is building a new bookcase for us.
We are built.
7) I haven’t typed the report yet.
The report yet.
8) It’s understood that the thieves are still in the city.
The thieves in the city.
9) There had to be someone who knew the answer.
Someone the answer.
10) It’s about a four hour drive from Valencia to Madrid.
The drive from Valencia to Madrid hours.

Check Click for Answers

Here are some more sentences with the given word which you must use and cannot change.

1. Please stop making that stupid noise.
wish
I making that stupid noise.
2. Why do you tolerate such bad behaviour from your children?
up
Why such bad behaviour from your children?
3. Samantha managed to finish her work on time.
succeeded
Samantha her work on time.
4. Samantha sent you the keys to her flat.
was
It the keys to her flat.
5. Pepito lives alone in a small flat.
by
Pepito in a small flat.
6. Pepito earns the same amount of money as Samantha.
much
Pepito Samantha.
7. Pepito was the only person who didn’t understand.
except
Everyone Pepito.
8. Luis started his business five years ago.
set
Luis five years ago.
9. I’m sure they’ve read the email by now.
have
They the email by now.
10. Pepito failed the FCE exam because he hadn’t studied.
would
If Pepito had studied, the FCE exam.

Check Click for Answers

Here are some more sentences for you to practise:

1. “Why don’t you do some exercise?” said Angeles.
doing
Angeles exercise.
2. If you don’t lose weight, you’ll get depressed.
lose
Unless get depressed.
3. I haven’t tried skiing before.
first
This is tried skiing.
4. The bank has rejected my application for a loan.
turned
My application for a loan the bank.
5. The company chairman said that his accountant had stolen the money.
accused
The company chairman the money.
6. They are too young to be smoking marijuana.
enough
They to be smoking marijuana.
7. Teachers have refused to work for three weeks.
strike
Teachers three weeks.
8. It was wrong of you to offer him money.
have
You him money.
9. I don’t want to spend the weekend with your sister and her two horrible kids.
rather
I the weekend with your sister and her two
10. That’s the nicest compliment I’ve ever been given.
such
I’ve nice compliment.

Check Click for Answers

1. Samantha felt happy after having a hard work out with her tennis instructor.
mood
Samantha after having a good work out with her tennis instructor.
2. Writing all of the sentence isn’t necessary in this exercise.
need
There’s all of the sentence in this exercise.
3. Nobody, apart from Pepito’s mother, thought he would pass the FCE exam.
person
Pepito’s mother thought he would pass the FCE exam.
4. The secretary connected me to the managing director.
put
The secretary the managing director.
5. Samantha would have gone to dinner with Leonardo if she hadn’t been so tired.
tired
Samantha was to dinner with Leonardo.
6. The Indian restaurant was practically empty.
hardly
There the Indian restaurant.
7. Pepito couldn’t solve the problem.
solution
Pepito was unable the problem.
8. I can’t believe this is the best paella restaurant in Valencia!
better
There must in Valencia!
9. It’s a waste of time for you to ask Samantha for her phone number.
point
There’s Samantha for her phone number.
10. Pepito has a full time job and looks after his mother too.
well
Pepito has a full time job his mother.

Check Click for Answers

1. “Whose is this Gameboy?” the teacher asked the students.
to
“Who ?” the teacher asked the students.
2. They aren’t selling tickets for the U2 concert until next week.
being
Tickets for the U2 concert until next week.
3. It is a nurse’s responsibility to take care of patients.
responsible
A nurse patients.
4. Manoli couldn’t eat the curry because it was too spicy.
too
The curry Manoli to eat.
5. I’m sorry I didn’t kiss her when I had the chance.
wish
I her when I had the chance.
6. Danny wrote his best poetry while he was staying in Tel Aviv.
was
Danny’s best poetry stay in Tel Aviv.
7. ‘We will send the disk only if you pay us first,’ said Luis.
not
‘We will you pay us first,’ said Luis.
8. Football doesn’t interest Craig.
interested
Craig football.
9. You may have to sleep outside so take a sleeping bag.
case
Take a sleeping bag sleep outside.
10. I’ve had enough of the noise from next door.
put
I refuse the noise from next door any more.

Check Click for Answers

1. The council are going to demolish that old block of flats.
pulled
That old block of flats down.
2. I haven’t seen this film before.
time
It’s the first this film.
3. How long was your journey from Barcelona to Valencia?
take
How long travel from Barcelona to Valencia?
4. After a long session with her gym instructor Samantha was so tired that she couldn’t eat much.
too
After a long session with her gym instructor Samantha was much.
5. Doing sentence transformations is not as much fun as watching paint dry.
than
Watching paint dry sentence transformations.
6. Craig began to learn Spanish five years ago.
learning
Craig five years.
7. Pepito has not had a job for three years.
out
Pepito has for three years.
8. ‘Have you read any poems by Pablo Neruda, Craig?’ asked Angleles.
read
Angeles asked Craig any poems by Pablo Neruda.
9. The last time I got drunk was eight months ago.
for
I eight months.
10. Harry is not usually late.
like
It is late.

Check Click for Answers

Separate Answer Sheet

 
El presente material es de utilidad para la preparación de FCE. El material online es una pequeña parte de un completo Curso de FIRST CERTIFICATE disponible en CD Rom y para su Descarga Online. Si deseas conocer si tu nivel actual es adecuado para preparar el examen, puedes realizar también una prueba de nivel.

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